What are the Odds of Losing 6 Hands in a Row?


Among emails I receive, a fairly common question is something like this:

Can you tell me the odds of losing six hands in a row at blackjack?

Sometimes it is 5 hands, sometimes 8, sometimes more.  No matter, I cringe whenever I get this question.

To me, it’s like an airship designer asking a chemist: “Does hydrogen weigh only half as much as helium?”   We all know how THAT turned out.

Hindenburg in flames

In either case, there is nothing wrong with the matter-of-fact question being asked, but it is apparent to the recipient that the question is likely a clue to dangerous thinking, whether it be the Hindenburg or the Martingale progression.

I’ll get back to that in a moment. But first, let me respond to the question, very carefully…

You probably mean “probability”

The first thing I want to do is change the wording of the question from “What are the odds” to “What is the probability“. Most people asking this question want an answer that is a single number or percentage, representing how likely the event is to occur. “Odds” means something slightly different, although the two are often used interchangeably. If you want to understand the difference, Google it.

Your question is incomplete

There is a crucial piece of information missing from your question. How do you plan to play?

Let’s say you sit down next to me at a blackjack table, and I look over and tell you: “This is unbelievable! I’m on the most horrible losing streak. My luck is so bad, I bet you $100 that I lose the next six hands in a row.” If you were foolish enough to bet me, I would quickly demonstrate how the probability of losing six in a row can be 100%!

But for the sake of your question, let’s assume the player will use accurate basic strategy on the game. I cannot resist the temptation of pointing out that virtually no player who asks this question will know a completely accurate basic strategy! But I’ll play along anyway.

Still not clear yet

There is another picky detail to consider. I assume you are not asking for the probability of losing exactly six hands in a row, which implies that the seventh hand cannot be a loss. Instead, you want to know the probability of losing six or more hands in a row. We can easily sidestep that complication, if we simply say that you want to know the probability of losing the next six hands of blackjack.

Finally, an answer?

For a typical shoe game, a basic strategy player will win 43.3% of hands, lose 48.0%, and push the other 8.7%.

If I answer the revised and improved question…

What is the probability of losing the next six hands at blackjack, using basic strategy?

Since each hand has a 48.0% chance of being a loss, the answer is 0.48 ^ 6 = 0.012 = 1.2%.

But wait a minute…

That still wasn’t the right question!

That probably isn’t what you meant either. What if you lose the first hand, push the second hand, and lose the next five hands in a row? You would probably want to call that losing six in a row. We should just ignore pushes altogether, and only count hands that end in a win or a loss. Of non-push hands, players win 47.4% and lose 52.6%.

Finally an answer that may satisfy you:

What is the probability of losing the next six hands at blackjack, using basic strategy, ignoring pushes?

The answer is 0.526 ^ 6 = 0.021 = 2.1%.

That is roughly 1 in 47 attempts.

What about other length losing streaks?

Just because this is a convenient place to do so, I’ll publish the numbers for other lengths of losing streaks.

Probability of losing n hands in a row, ignoring pushes.
n Probability One in
1 loss 52.6% 1.9
2 losses 27.7% 3.6
3 losses 14.6% 6.9
4 losses 7.7% 13
5 losses 4.0% 25
6 losses 2.1% 47
7 losses 1.1% 90
8 losses 0.59% 170
9 losses 0.31% 323
10 losses 0.16% 614
11 losses 0.08% 1168
12 losses 0.04% 2219
13 losses 0.02% 4217

Why I hate answering this question

When players ask questions about how likely it is to lose hands in a streak, it usually means that they are considering a negative progression betting system that would fail if they encounter a certain number of losing hands in a row. Most commonly, they have rediscovered the infamous Martingale system, where you double up after any losing hands to catch up.

The Martingale is the simplest of the negative progression betting systems. The idea is simple. If you lose one hand, just double your bet on the next hand. Eventually, you will win a hand, and make back all of your losses plus a profit of the initial bet. Indeed, this seems to work very reliably, until it doesn’t. The problem is that most people underestimate how likely those “unlikely” streaks of losses really are. Check the table above. The probabilities get small, but not nearly small enough.

Why you should NOT bet the Martingale

If you think the Martingale is a good idea, you are badly mistaken. Yes, it gives you a high percentage chance of winning a small amount, but it does not take long to run out of luck. For a $10 bettor who wants to be able to handle up to 7 losses in a row, he needs to have a bankroll of $2550, and be willing to bet $1280 on the eighth hand. All this, for a $10 win each time.
And he will run into that fatal eighth loss once every 170 trials on average. You can think of that as making $1700 in profit before you eventually lose $2550. (Yes, I am oversimplifying because doubles and splits make the math very messy. The real numbers still make this a very bad idea.)

On top of that, blackjack is a terrible choice for the Martingale system. With the necessary doubles and splits, sometimes both on the same hand, you will actually need a far larger bankroll to play correct basic strategy. If you choose to ignore basic strategy doubles and splits, you can get by with “just” the $2550, but at a substantially increased loss rate on all your bets.

It’s not only the Martingale

Any progressive betting system is doomed to fail. Any series of negative expectation bets is guaranteed to create a negative expectation overall. If you are just playing for fun, you will lose less money by flat-betting. If you are playing for profit, you need to find a true way to get an edge, such as counting cards.

Hopefully you are reading this before you learn the hard way. After all, we don’t fly airships full of hydrogen any more either.

28 comments on "What are the Odds of Losing 6 Hands in a Row?"

  • Anonymous said:

    Wow. First of all, this article addressed the losing nature of reverse progression as related to BlackJack (almost). It was simplified to large degree. However, the author is corrects in two major points. First being that in and of itself, Martingale will fail at BlackJack over the long run. Second is that a vast majority of players will not make the optimum decisions each and every time to increase their odds given ANY particular strategy. If someone does not understand the math, have the discipline and bankroll to try any system to it’s strictest mathematical constraints, and have a willingness to lose, he has no business experimenting. Most people searching this sot of thing (As the author suggests) are looking for a simple, quick way to beat the house. And thy will fail.
    Most striking among the replies are the liberal doses of perceptual bias. ANYONE who makes a claim based on observed results is suspect. The human mind is not capable of correctly interpreting complex statistics from it’s observations. This is a fact. Make no mistake, your 9 or 38 or 21342345 trips to the blackjack table to try a system, and your recollection of results is skewed. Humans remember the extreme examples better than the more average examples. This has been proven time and time again. It is why math, specifically linear progression, is necessary to bear out the validity of any given system. One then has to have a mature and reasonable viewpoint to assess any practical application.
    As far as playing any BJ game with reduced odds, or where you cannot see the shuffle, don’t. 6/5 is for tourists who don’t know better or care if they lose. Casinos who cannot or will not show a shuffle simply deserve to lose your business. This is a moral, not a mathematical response. As far as a mathematical response, it is ridiculous. There is no possible stack of a deck that can ensure victory over an unknown number of players. The deck could be juiced, meaning that the ratio of small cards to 10’s and/or aces is illegally modified. But any casino trying this is risking their license. You might see that in the Caribbean or some such place, but not in Vegas.

  • The article failed to mention caveats to overall strategy, and objective.

    I’ll run a negative progression at times. Never by itself of course. That’s stupid. There are ways to MAKE the Casino THINK you’re running negative progression, and actually hide it in something else (No, I’m not giving away everything here).

    Regardless, as with any mathematical game, you have to take into account strategy, and objective. Of course, this is taking into account that the individual is not a degen, and is actually going to “work” when they walk into the casino.

    You run counting cards, and the rest of your strategy, and you’re up your target amount, plus a little spill over your target. Here … I’ll give you one for free.

    Take that SPILL ONLY (and sometimes, if you want every dealer to be in love with you until the end of time, the tip amount) and run your strategy on a strict Martingale. You’ve already made your money. So just run the spill, down to a predetermined kill arena, but run strict negative progression until you hit the new target, or your kill spot is hit.

    You __ MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT STRATEGY SPECIFICS __ before throwing around “never’s” and “Dont event think about” ‘s

    Blackjack is actually a simple game to beat, with even a rudimentary understanding of differential mathematics; which in my opinion, they should be teaching to 9 year olds.

  • Mike in Las Vegas said:

    Just got back from Ceasers Palance. Tested my suspicions again.

    1) New Deck
    2) Deck Spread out
    3) Deck placed in shoe and never shuffled in front of me
    4) EMPTY TABLE – I was the only player at the table

    IMMEDIATLY LOST 7 HANDS IN A ROW STRAIGHT !!!! Per this website – odds of this are 1.1% or 1 in 90 !!!!!

    My suspicion has again been confirmed. However I have NO EVIDENCE other than circumstance. So I need to know if anyone else has experienced this.

    I’m wondering if the casinos are setting up the new decks in a mathmatically predetermined way which give the dealer an edge if they are not shuffled good enough.

    Anyone comment on this? I don’t want to hear oh your an idiot. ALLOT of math research goes into Casinos and they have BILLIONS at thier disposal – basically infinate money to see if there is a way to get a new deck in a preset way that mathmatically give them a huge edge.

    IF you have the time and money to test this – give it a try on 5 sessions and see if 3-4 lose money. AGAIN this is how you do it:

    1) Empty Table – Table must be EMPTY
    2) Cards spread out on table
    3) New Deck (if the cards are spread out on the table it means IT IS A NEW DECK)

    Follow these steps as an experiment (if you have the time, money and are interested) and record your results. Most of you probably won’t do this but if I’m wrong – you have no reason not to.

    I am suspicious because the odds of this happening WITH the same environmental variables I just listed must be very, very low.

    I am wondering, if the casinos are engaged in a legal conspiracy to “legally defruad” players based on the above.

    If I’m the only one – fine. However I’ve been talking to other people and they have noticed the same thing.

    Again – I’m not willing to say anything for sure – at this point is an ongoing experiment. I’m going to go to other casinos and try this AGAIN and record my results under the same conditions.

    • Alex replied:

      I agree, their shuffling machine reads the card, so I am suspicious if that in between lines in laws there is a loop hole that they can some how shuffle, that bunch of smalll numbers comes out, so it ruins all your doubles and splits!
      Also, Golden nugget that hand shuffle, they change their cards every two hours, I think the way the shuffle, there is a same math to it, and as soon as cards gets shuffle we’ll, two hours cards change comes!

      • Anonymous replied:

        I think they do. I have witnessed 10 small cards come out in a row and dealers don’t bust. I have also witnessed every player having 20 including the dealer. I think this is due to lack of shuffling. No wonder they allow basic strategy charts. Cards are not coming out random as they should to make the game fair.

    • No. It’s the basic gamblers fallacy in hitting a losing streak (for any number of reasons, which could be they simply did not play basic strategy correctly; Hitting at 15 when the dealer stands at 6 for example. Or it could be a simple mathematical deviation). Regardless … your theory falls apart on your own premise. NO ONE ELSE MUST BE AT THE TABLE, per your own words.

      That’s not something the Casino controls, or can control. It’s what we refer to in Mathematics, as Non-Linear Complexity variables.

      Per your own statement, if anyone else walks up to the table during the above statement, the entire necessity of the Casino “arranging the cards” (which in actuality, they’d be allowed to do) falls apart.

      Regardless, Blackjack is so stupidly simple to beat if you have the correct math … even using negative progression as part of your overall strategy (and where the above article falls apart … is the author doesn’t account for other strategy specifics … see the comment below)

    • Anonymous replied:

      Yes! I know dealer and confirms shufflers stack deck against card counters, but I have ran into the problems you have mentioned. Once they realize what you are doing you will lose.
      I have played live online blackjack and after 4 days I kept losing, so to confirm my theory I joined with another name and same thing after 4 days I kept losing.

  • Mike in Las Vegas said:

    I’ve noticed the same thing as Benjamin. The cards are coming “pre packed”. Can’t help but wonder if there is a certain mathematically proven way to stack the deck. When you arrive to the tables in Vegas the cards are splayed out in a “display” kind of way.


    I walked up to an empty table at MANDALAY BAY , cashed 2 grand in chips , asked the dealer or to shuffle the cards in front of me. The nasty little Vietnamese bitch refused got major rude attitude and yelled the cards were shuffled already why you want shuffle again i no unda stand nobody ask that why you saying shuffle …. On and on and on … I called over pit boss and told him my play isn’t starting until I see the cards are shuffled.

    Pit boss sided with dealer and said she already shuffled them she doesn’t have to show you she shuffled.

    I said NO and left they demanded i color out my chips (change green 25s to black 100s) I said i don’t HAVE to color up and stormed out.

    I only play large sports betting or tiny roulette amounts now – or video black jack. I will not play reg blackjack on strip unless it’s only for a small stop loss or there is a hot single girl sitting alone. I strongly suspect the casinos are pre shuffling the decks or doing something nefarious – because the difference in losses between the strip and downtown is night and day.

    It’s COMMON for me lose 4, 5 , 10 hands in a row at MGM and Ceasers properties – COMMON … I will literally sit down and lose money AND i always look for tables with nobody there so there always a new deck and i always lose ….. It’s not probable and other people are saying the same thing. I’m not a card counter i just really hate playing with other people (strangers) since I’m not there for the fake social hour hello goodbye I’ll never see you again in my life kind if thing – I’m there to win money. Again:

    1) Strip Properties Only
    2) MGM and Caesars Only
    3) Brand new deck only

    I didn’t realize they were not shuffling in front of me until I noticed the cards were all splayed out on the tables for display.

    rarely has this happened downtown. Whenever i play Cortez it’s always ups and downs and cortez ALWAYS shuffles in front of you by hand with the original blackjack rules.

    I 100% agree with Benjamin something is not right with Black Jack on the strip

    And another thing .. Fuck these dealers. Most of them are “nice” enough but cannot even speak correct English !! Vegas is importing cheap labor to cut out the job market and profit on the backs for poor 3rd world and developing H1B1s who are in a new country far from home and Scared to speak up.

    That’s how these people like Sheldon Alsdale and Wynn – want the world to be. Remember the song from the famous goth band Nine Inch Nails:

    “god money I’ll do anything for you … god money just tell me what you want me too ….. god money dances on the backs of the bruised … god moneys not one to choose”

    NONE of the old timers can tell me hey have not noticed these huge and obvious changes over the past 50 years which has ruined the entire Vegas experience. everything from the class of employees, imported dealers , rude pit bosses , asshole security staff , sky high prices and the worst – a non stop roller coaster of nickel and diming .

    .. I will take Vegas 50 years ago over Vegas today any day.

    Tell me i am making this up .

  • Benjamin said:

    I know this is an old post. Ive read some of these and am curious. Through observation and the probability somehow favoring the dealer. And I don’t mean by percent alone as in the amount of decks and the hitting or standing on soft 17. I mean it’s like those casinos have a special witch doctor looming behind the scenes. The spread of cards sometimes seems astronomically improbable, such as last night where the dealer gets 4 aces in a row with kings. Now this is a reputable casino of course. I digress. So my question is. I’ve read the charts and such for increasing win percentages by using accurate basic strategy. But wait. What planet did those stats come from? If I stand on a dealers up card of 2-6 with a 14, 15, 16 for example, I almost always lose and dealer won’t bust. And he beats me with some ridiculous number either just one more or by far. So when sometimes I hit on a 13 and a 5 or 6 up card I’m of course much heckled and chastised by the players who think they know how to really play (but they all bet like random bobbleheads). And FYI off topic I despise not many things but hindsight strategists I call them.
    “shoulda hit 3 rounds ago… ” I say.. “Shoulda told me what card I had then coming next and what card I have coming now.” lol But for the most part. Not trusting the dealers cards. I’ve won. My problem is too my lack of patience and maintaining and ultimately betting more than I think not commanding my brain to think of the next dealer streak. But I also play two hands as it seems more safe , until a loss streak. I’m new mostly and don’t mean to discount anything of this or any post and or anyone’s skill, knowledge and professionalism of the game. I simply just can’t get down counting because it’s just too fast (even though I play piano lightning fast) and with the HiLo numbers and running and true count, I’ll just say I couldn’t add dived and solve for X like that. Especially quick dealers. Maybe I’ll find a slow one. Lol Any additional advice at this point would be helpful. Mostly just want to bet more safely and practically. I understand your post above about the 2500. I did read it lol I’m just more asking for anyones advice on what they might use personally and what works and hasn’t worked. . Forgive the long post. Thank you all.

    Benjamin CA

  • Anonymous said:

    You have a 1/20 prob. of being dealt a blackjack w only a 1/25 chance (assuming 8-deck shoe) of having your blackjack pushed. Suppose you are playing a 13 loss Martingale, then that means you will have 200 strings that end with you getting a blackjack and making $10 plus your bet on the string. Simply counting $10 profit on every string ending in a loss and multiplying by the number of times you can expect to win and then subtracting by the total lost win you do run through the string is incorrect. Perhaps, you can figure the math using martingale relative to expected losses while figuring in the mathematics of a 3/2 payoff on the probability of each length string ended by a blackjack?

    • Author Ken Smith replied:

      You’re right. I ignored blackjacks in this simplified comparison, just like I ignored doubles and splits. The math gets quite a bit messier, although I suppose it would fairly easy to account for only the blackjacks. The conclusion is however unavoidable. In blackjack, your expected loss is the total of your bets times the house edge, unless you vary your bets based on the deck composition instead of some scheme based on a string of wins or losses. No progression can change that fact. Feel free to work it out in laborious detail if that interests you. It doesn’t interest me.

  • Anonymous said:

    You also didn’t factor in the 3/2 payoff on a blackjack that can be the streak ender. If you bet, say $640 after your 6th loss in a row and hit a blackjack, you make $330, not $10. Also, since double-downs and most splits are in your favor, while you certainly need a much bigger bankroll for the possibility that you’ll get deal an 11 when the dealer has a 6, those hands also put the odds in your favor when you have the most money on the table.

  • Question and Observation regarding raising your bet when the count is a negative 7 to 13 true negative of 4′ Has anyone run simulations on this.

    So far , 100 hands only, it works almost as well as a true positive count of 4′. If Simulation agree, Why?

  • luis beckert said:

    And when bets are only the true count 1 or greater than 1?

  • Roger said:

    Why does your basic strategy recommend always standing on a pair of sevens, where as you hit a hard 14 when the dealer shows 6 or more ?

    • Author Ken Smith replied:

      You don’t mention what dealer upcard you are looking at, nor what the rules of the game are. I’m going to assume that maybe you are looking at a single deck game, and the unusual advice of standing with (7,7) vs a dealer Ten. (Or Surrender if available!). Well, single deck is a lot different. The effect of removing each card is substantial in single deck. In this case, what card would you prefer to draw here? Another 7. But there are only two 7s left in the deck. That swings this decision to make standing better than hitting.

      My usual caveats: This ONLY happens in single deck. Refer to the Strategy Engine for your exact game’s optimal strategy.

      • Roger replied:

        I’m embarrassed to tell you that I was looking at T-T, not 7-7. These 74 year-old eyes play tricks on me.

  • Federico said:

    I know i m off topic but i don t know where to post.
    I had a new idea to count down cards.

    Is there anyone who can give me an help please?

    my mail is federico.betti90 @ gmail.com

  • Paul said:

    How do you know when to increase betting when I play for five or ten bucks I win when I go up I lose? any help on staggering my betting to improve winning percentages.

    • Author Ken Smith replied:

      There is no magic betting system of staggering your bets that can or will work. If you want to beat the game, learn to count cards. Then you can raise your bet when you know you have an advantage. If that doesn’t appeal to you, the cheapest way to play the game is to flat-bet the minimum.

  • Anonymous said:

    Why dont you advise splitting 8s on ten and ace and ace on ace like other srategys thanks

    • Author Ken Smith replied:

      It sounds like you have generated a strategy for a “no-peek” game using the strategy engine or trainer. In that case the plays you mention are correct.
      But if you are playing a standard US-style game, make sure you choose “peek” instead. The strategy for those hands will then change.

      Edited to add: It looks like you are probably in the UK, where no-peek is the norm. As my charts indicate, don’t split against a dealer Ace, because you could lose both bets to a dealer blackjack. (Against a ten, only split aces.) That can’t happen in a peek game.

  • jim haik said:

    It’s clear you never heard of “Jim’s rhythm system”.

    I can’t reveal the details, but it’s a modified anti martingale system that limits your losses and maximizes your gains, best played on a 6 deck shoe, and playing two hands or one hand, depending on the circumstance. If other players at the table don’t like you ‘changing up the cards’ by being in and out with one or two hands, you may want to find an empty table. You will never draw attention from the pit, and you never count cards. This system will lose more than it wins,but the wins can be huge.

    • Anonymous replied:

      Nope, There is no system to win in Blackjack, except counting cards. (And even that can not guarantee a win.)

      • Mike in Las Vegas replied:

        Counting cards feels worthless with 6-5 Blackjack taking over the entire strip and downtown. Even El Cortez 6-5 blackjack tables are expanding.

        People are so so so so stupid they literally see “6-5” and think it’s more than “3-2” because their “feelings” told them it was bigger.

        It is proof how stupid people are today. I don’t care if you give everyone a fake grading curve group grades college degree. This is undeniable prof most people are dumb as a post when it comes to basic math and by the way MOST college degrees require some kind of College level Algebra , Calculus as a prerequisite for graduation.

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