Lesson 11 – Evaluating Games

This free course on blackjack and card counting was created by the GameMaster, publisher of the GameMaster Online website. It is reproduced here in its entirety with permission of the author. His 24-lesson course is an excellent introduction to winning blackjack.

To start at the beginning, visit the Welcome page.

While almost all Blackjack games are ultimately beatable, the rewards to be gained from marginal situations do not adequately compensate you for your time and risk. Therefore, you must evaluate a game in several ways before playing it. Two primary areas of concern are the house rules of the game, including the number of decks used and the placement of the cut-card, what we call “penetration.”

Many rule changes require a change in your basic strategy, so don’t forget about the “Basic Strategy Engine”. Remember that rule changes may also affect your betting schedule.

Effect of Rule Variations on the Player’s Edge

(Assume 6 decks, double on any first two cards, no double after splitting, resplit all pairs, except Aces, insurance is available and the dealer stands on Ace-6. This yields a -.54% advantage to the player.)

Changes which help the player Change in the edge
Double after split +.14%
Resplit Aces +.07%
Early surrender vs. all +.70%
Early surrender vs 10 0nly +.30%
Late surrender +.08%
Single Deck +.50%
Two Decks +.20%
Four Decks +.05%
Changes which hurt the player Changes in edge
Dealer hits A-6 -.20%
Double only on 11 -.46%
Double only on 10,11 -.09%
Double only 9, 10,11 -.09%
No resplitting pairs -.04%
No insurance (if you are counting cards) -.40%

To determine the casino’s edge over you at the beginning of a shoe, just add or subtract the rules variations from the ‘base’ game listed above. For example, if you play a double deck game which has the same rules as the base game, the casino advantage is computed as follows.

Base game -.54%
Two Decks +.20%
Player edge -.34%

Effect of Deck Penetration

How far the dealer goes into the deck(s) before shuffling can have a major effect on your winnings. The reason is that with a shallow penetration, the ‘high’ counts which enable you to bet more occur less often in decks where the shuffle comes early. The table below shows how often counts will occur on a percentage basis at varying degrees of penetration.

Percent Occurrence at…
True Count 50% 65% 75% 85% penetration
+1 15 15 13 13
+2 8 7 8 8
+3 3 4 4 5
+4 1.5 2.5 3 4
+5 1 1 2 2
+6 .5 1 2 2
+7 0 .5 1 1.5
+8 0 0 .5 1
+9 0 0 0 .5
+10 0 0 0 .5

Let’s examine what I’m trying to say here. If you play at a game with only 50% penetration, out of every 100 hands, only 29 will have, on average, a true count of 1 or better. Since it requires a true count of 1 to get even with the house, only 14 will be hands on which you have an advantage. Now look at the stats for a game with 85% penetration. Here, about 37.5% of the hands will be at breakeven or better and almost a quarter will be hands on which you have an advantage.


Even if a game doesn’t offer the best rules, it can still be beaten if good penetration is available. Remember that you should leave a game when the count drops below a true of minus 1 so that you spend most of your playing time making bets in what I call the ‘profit zone.’


Calculate the player starting advantage for the following:

  • Single deck, double only on 10 and 11 and the dealer hits A-6. Resplits (except Aces) are permitted and insurance is available.
  • Six decks, dealer stands on A-6, double any first two cards, double after split is allowed, resplitting permitted, including Aces and insurance is available.
  • Two decks, double on any first two cards, no resplitting of pairs, no double after split allowed, late surrender and insurance is available.

I’ll post the correct answers to this quiz in the next lesson.

← Previous: Lesson 10
Next: Lesson 12

12 comments on “Lesson 11 – Evaluating Games

  • Hi Ken,

    I calculated my local casino edge based on the infor you give.
    our rule is 6 decks, double on any first two cards, double after splitting, resplit all pairs, except Aces, insurance is available,dealer stands on H-17.
    so my calculation is: -.54% -0.2%(H17)+0.7(ES)+0.14(DAS)=0.1% is this right? if it is right, does it mean player have 0.1% edge over casino?
    thanks for all you have replied on other topic.

  • Dealer only has one card on table, player can surrender before the first third card deal out of the shoe.player can surrender on dealer’s ten but not A. so what is the advantage for player for this rule. if ES is +0.7%, what is the advantage for this kind of surrender?

  • Savvas said:

    Hey Ken,

    I just started counting cards and i found 2 casinos with good rules but i don’t know which is better. In both casinos the dealer stands on S17, double on any 2 pairs is allowed, resplitting is allowed and after splitting aces you get one card and black jack pays 3:2. But the first one is an 8-deck with 85% penetration while the other is 4-deck with 65-75% penetration. Which one should i prefer?

    • The off-the-top difference between 4 decks and 8 decks is only around 0.1%.
      Because the penetration is so much better on your 8-deck game, I would choose the 8-deck game for card counting.
      (Just to be clear: Basic strategy players would be better off in the 4-deck game, since penetration doesn’t matter to them.)

  • Kanatis said:

    Hello Ken

    I have a question about which count is more preferred. I play in 2 casinos one of which is 4deck with 75% penetration and the other one is 6deck with 85% penetration. Obviously the best casino to choose is the second one but my question is that i use Hi-Lo count, but some say that the Knock-out count is more preferred for shoe games even if it is an unbalanced count, so which of these 2 counts is the best for these 2 casinos??
    I find Hi-Lo profitable and easy but i find KO count easy as well, so does the KO count have more success than the Hi-Lo count for the casinos that i attend to???
    Will i have more success by using KO count rather than Hi-Lo count in those casinos??
    Please Help :)

  • Love your site and tutorial. I’ve really been enjoying playing blackjack because of it. However, I’m confused or have a problem with one thing. You say to walk away when TC is -1. If I actually walked away, I’d wind up never playing. -1 occurs very very often, I don’t understand how you expect people to walk away. One time I went to the casino with my friends and we took up the whole table, so I was able to sit out a bunch of hands…when the count was negative, without looking suspicious. That was awesome. But I just can’t figure out how to do it when playing not-with-friends without looking suspicious. Can you give me a few pointers? Thanks

    • I think GameMaster’s advice here is impractical for most players. As you note, a true count of -1 happens very often. Too often for most players to want to, or even be able to switch tables.
      Realistically, switching tables at TC -2 is still tough but manageable if you are in a casino with plenty of tables.
      If that is still too difficult, at least save your restroom breaks for when the count really tanks.

      • John replied:

        Alright, noted. At least that’s one less thing I have to worry about doing wrong. Thank you for such a quick reply!

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